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2019年第2期   DOI:10.22217/upi.2018.548
发展中国家城市的非正规经济 —— 挑战规划的窠臼
The Informal Economy in Cities of the Global South: Challenges to the Planning Lexicon

卡洛琳·斯金纳 凡妮莎·沃尔森

Caroline Skinner, Vanessa Watson

关键词:非正规经济 ;规划 ;非正规性 ;发展研究 ;发展中国家

Keywords:Informal Economy; Planning; Informality; Development Study; Global South

摘要:

在发展中国家城市,非正规经济是城市经济的重要组成部分。当前关于如何通过政策支持非正规经济的研究集中在经济政策领域而很少涉及城市规划领域。在规划管控作为限制和边缘化非正规经济活动的核心手段的背景下,从空间规划角度重新理解非正规经济尤为重要。文章首先通过数据阐述非正规经济的规模、种类和对城市经济增长的贡献 ;然后阐述当前针对非正规经济的一系列政策和理论所处立场的差异。第三部分通过案例,阐述一些发展中国家地区正在通过政策和规划策略转型为非正规就业者提供合适的生存环境,包括公共空间中的基础设施、家庭作坊,以及拾荒者组织。文章最后提出规划从业者面对非正规经济时,需要改进规划方法,以及当前相关研究面临的挑战——在规划实践仍然以管控为主的今天,应对非正规性经济的理论和实践正日益脱节。

Abstract:

The informal economy is a significant component of urban economy in global south. Comparing with the field of economic policies, there are few studies focusing on how to support informal economy through policies nowadays in the field of urban planning. In the context of planning as the central tool to regulate and marginalize informal economy, reconsidering informal economy from the aspect of spatial planning is important. The paper firstly describes the scale, the categories and the contribution to the urban economy’s growth of informal economy through data. Second, series differential theories and policies towards informal economy are reviewed. In the third part, some cases in global south indicate that some cities provide the proper livelihood for the informal economy through transforming the urban policies and planning strategies, including infrastructures in public spaces, home-based work and waste picker organization. Finally, the paper holds the view that the planners need to improve the planning method facing informal economy. The challenge that the gap between theory and practices of informal economy is increasing in case of regulation is still the main planning method. 

版权信息:本文原载于劳德里奇出版社 2017 年出版的《劳德里奇丛书 :发展中国家规划》(The Routledge Companion to Planning in the Global South),劳德里奇出版社授权我刊发表中译文。
基金项目:
作者简介:

卡洛琳·斯金纳, WIEGO 城市政策研究负责人,开普敦大学非洲城市研究中心高级研究员。caroline.skinner@uct.ac.za
凡妮莎·沃尔森,开普敦大学建筑规划与地理科学学院城市规划系教授。vanessa.watson@uct.ac.za

译者简介:

甘欣悦,清华大学建筑学院城市规划系博士研究生。ganxy813@163.com

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