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2019年第2期   DOI:10.22217/upi.2019.015
中国大城市非正规公共空间治理——对城市流动摊贩空间疏导模式的后现代反思
Governance of Informal Public Space in Urban China: A Post-modern Critique of Spatial Formalization of Urban Street Vending

黄耿志 薛德升 徐孔丹 杨燕珊 陈昆仑

Huang Gengzhi, Xue Desheng, Xu Kongdan, Yang Yanshan, Chen Kunlun

关键词:城市非正规性 ;公共空间 ;流动摊贩 ;正规化 ;后现代主义

Keywords:Urban Informality; Public Space; Street Vending; Formalization; Post-modernism

摘要:

如何协调现代性 / 正规性与非正规性的矛盾是 21 世纪城市规划面临的一个挑战。本文通过分析广州流动摊贩疏导区治理的性质和矛盾,提出“合理正规化”的问题。研究认为,疏导区是一种基于空间操作的正规化机制,它以空间固定为基础,通过施加一套源于正规经济的管理措施来改造和管控非正规性。然而,疏导区的“正规本位主义”忽视了非正规经济嵌入现实实践的自然特性和优势,使其面临潜在的可持续性危机。这个危机隐含于疏导区四个正规化要素与流动摊贩特性之间的矛盾,表现在区位固定与流动性、租金缴纳与低成本、合同约束与灵活性、产品管制与自主性等方面的紧张关系。广州案例表明了协调既定的现代空间秩序与非正规的公共空间使用之关系的复杂性,带来的启示是对非正规的规划响应不应只是简单地将源于正规经济的既定规范施加于非正规,而应充分考虑非正规自身特性、需求和规律。这或许需要规划师突破现代规划框架,发展应对流动性、灵活性等表征后现代性特征的规划理论和方法。

Abstract:

Coordinating the contradiction between modernity/formality and informality is one of major challenges facing urban planning in the 21st century. This paper opens up the question of what might be good formalization by examining the nature and contradiction of the permitted-vending-place (shudaoqu) policy in Guangzhou, a permissive approach that seeks to regulate street vendors by positioning them in designated places. It is argued that shudaoqu is a space- based formalization strategy given that it seeks to reform and regulate informalities by immobilizing them in bounded spaces, in which a set of regulation derived from formalities are implemented. However, this formalization project manifests an ideology of ‘formalomophism’, which tends to neglect the naturalness and advantages of informal economies, and which renders the project facing a potential risk of unsustainability. The risk is caused by the contradiction between four strategies of formalizing and attributes of informal vending, evidenced by tensions between locational immobility and mobility, rental payment and low cost, contract constraints and flexibility, and product regulation and autonomy. The Guangzhou case indicates the complexity of the coordination of the given order of modern urban spaces and the informal use of public spaces by street vendors. It suggests that planning responses to urban informalities do not simply mean the imposition of existing sets of formal economic institutions on them, but should involve appropriate regulations that meet their needs and suit their circumstances. It therefore suggests that urban planners need to break through the modern planning framework and develop planning theories and methods for responding to mobility and flexibility in an emerging post-modern world.

版权信息:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(41771137),广东省科学院百名青年人才培养专项(2019GDASYL-0104004),广东省科学院骨干科研机构创新能力建设专项(2017GDASCX-0101)
作者简介:

黄耿志(通信作者),中山大学,地理科学与规划学院副教授。hgzhi@foxmail.com
薛德升,中山大学,地理科学与规划学院教授,博士生导师。eesxds@mail.sysu.edu.cn
徐孔丹,东莞市城建规划设计院高级规划师。1052202009@qq.com
杨燕珊,硕士,广州大学地理科学学院。1027491146@qq.com
陈昆仑,中国地质大学教授。chenkl@cug.edu.cn

译者简介:

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