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2019年第2期   DOI:10.22217/upi.2017.241
大都市圈职住空间关系与就业可达性:交通基础设施的影响
Job-Housing Spatial Relationship and Job Accessibility of Metropolitan Area: The Influence of Transportation Infrastructure

沈忱 张纯 夏海山 程志华

Shen Chen, Zhang Chun, Xia Haishan, Cheng Zhihua

关键词:职住空间关系 ;就业可达性 ;交通基础设施 ;大都市圈 ;低收入群体 ;职住平衡 ;职住空间错位

Keywords:Job-Housing Spatial Relationship; Job Accessibility; Transportation Infrastructure; Metropolitan Area; Low-income Group; Job-Housing Balance; Job-Housing Spatial Mismatch

摘要:

近年来,全球范围内大都市圈职住空间不断分离,使得职住空间关系和就业可达性的话题越发受到决策者和政策研究者的关注。其中,交通基础设施作为连接居住和就业功能的重要纽带,被认为是在既有职住空间格局基础上提升就业可达性的重要手段。本文探讨城市职住空间格局的形成及变化规律,以及交通基础设施投入对改善就业可达性的影响。国际案例研究表明,对于中低收入群体来说,公共交通基础设施更加直接地影响着他们的就业选择和生活成本,增加其投入能明显提升就业率。相对于北美传统的职住空间分离模型,中国城市职住空间关系因快速居住郊区化、新城与开发区建设等而呈现出更加复杂的局面,郊区公共交通基础设施的薄弱可能将弱势群体置于更不利的境地。因此,在不同文化背景和发展阶段下,交通基础设施对于改善职住失衡局面的作用有所差异。恰当的交通基础设施投入,可以在既有城市职住格局的基础上提升就业可达性,平衡和优化职住空间关系,改善低收入群体的就业和生活状态,从而产生更加深远的社会和经济影响。

Abstract:

In recent years, job-housing spatial mismatch becomes more and more common for metropolitan areas globally, and related issue on job accessibility receives increasing attention from policy makers and policy researchers. As an important link between residential and employment functions, transportation infrastructure is believed to be an important means to increase job accessibility based on existing urban pattern. This paper summarizes the establishment and changes of job-housing spatial relation, as well as the impact of transportation infrastructure on the job accessibility. Accumulated studies show that the public transportation infrastructure directly impact on employment opportunities and the living cost, especially for the low-income and middle-income groups. Increasing investment on the public transportation infrastructure inputs will improve employment ratio significantly. Compared with the original job-housing mismatch model in North America, job-housing spatial relationship in China are more complicated due to rapid suburbanization, new town development and new industrial zone development. Lack of public transportation in suburban area leads the vulnerable groups to a more disadvantaged situation. Therefore, under various cultural backgrounds and development stages, impact of transportation infrastructure on the improvement of job accessibility might be different. Appropriate traffic infrastructure investment will improve job accessibility, balance and optimize job-housing spatial relationship, and also increase employment opportunities for the low-income group, thus has profound influence for urban development in the future.

版权信息:
基金项目:自然科学基金面上项目(51778039),世界银行项目(7178074),中央高校基本科研业务费(KAJB16007536)
作者简介:

沈忱,北京交通大学博士研究生,北京交通大学—辛辛那提大学联合培养博士研究生。shencc@bjtu.edu.cn
张纯(通信作者),北京交通大学建筑与艺术学院副教授,博导。zhangc@bjtu.edu.cn
夏海山,北京交通大学建筑与艺术学院院长,教授,博导。hshxia@bjtu.edu.cn
程志华,乌鲁木齐市城市综合交通项目研究中心高级工程师。603027577@qq.com

译者简介:

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