点击排行
 
正文
全文下载次数:378
2019年第5期   DOI:10.22217/upi.2017.344
美国学区格局形成的动因概述及其对我国的规划启示
An Overview of the School District Pattern Formation in the US with Its Planning Enlightenment to China

毕波 林文棋 许俊萍

Bi Bo, Lin Wenqi, Xu Junping

关键词:学区;格局;分权;自下而上;美国

Keywords:School District; Pattern; Decentralization; Bottom-Up; The US

摘要:

就我国学区制改革中的学区划分依据问题,有必要从地理学视角出发考察一个学区格局是如何形成的。以学区体系成熟的美国为鉴,本文从国土尺度上概述其18 世纪以来学区制的雏形、学区的扩张与合并,以及当代学区类别体系与格局特征;并从物业财税保障、就学体制变革、人口规模分布和种族隔离历史四方面总结了美国学区格局的形成动因。从中得出:美国学区制起源于自下而上的社区自治传统,而非国家制度产物;学区格局的形成是分权化体系下的政治地理过程,而非行政划分,体现出社会经济分异的不平等;除了种族隔离影响之外,学区格局的形成以物业税为基础,体现出规模经济的主导作用。对比我国国情,规划研究需要在政策层面延伸,厘清概念、因地制宜,综合论证构建学区的可行性。


Abstract:

Considering the criteria of school districting in China’s school district system reform, it is necessary to study how a school district pattern formed from the perspective of geography. Taking the US as example, this paper briefly describes the prototype of American school district, the expansion and consolidation of school districts since the 18th century, and the characteristics of contemporary system with its national pattern. It summarizes the driving forces forming American school district pattern from four aspects: property taxation, school system reform, population distribution and the history of racial segregation. It is concluded that American school district system originated from the tradition of bottom-up local autonomy, not a top-down product of state system. The formation of the school district pattern is a political geographical process under the decentralized system, rather than an administrative division, reflecting the pattern of socio-economic segregation simultaneously. Except the racial segregation factor, the dominant role of scale economy based on property taxation is also reflected. In terms of China, planning study needs to extend discussions at the policy level to clarify the connotation of school district and adapt it to local conditions, and to demonstrate the feasibility of school district construction comprehensively.


版权信息:
基金项目:国家社会科学基金项目(14BGL149),国家自然科学基金项目(51508208)
作者简介:

毕波,清华大学建筑学院城乡规划系博士研究生,富布莱特联合培养博士研究生。bibo34417@163.com

林文棋,清华大学建筑学院副教授,北京清华同衡规划设计研究院总规划师

许俊萍,厦门市海外高层次引进人才,美国得克萨斯农工大学城市规划博士,高级教员,研究员


译者简介:

参考文献:
  • [1] 王瑜. 关于试行学区制的几点思考[J]. 课程教育研究, 2015(14): 21-22.

    [2] 王芳. 美国学区制度研究[D]. 上海: 华东理工大学, 2010.

    [3] 梁云. 殖民地时期美国学区制的发展[D]. 上海: 上海师范大学, 2012.

    [4] 王娟涓. 当代美国农村中小学合并研究[D]. 重庆: 西南大学, 2013.

    [5] 刘伟, 孙蔚,邢燕. 基于GIS 网络分析的老城区教育设施服务区划分及规模核定[J]. 规划师, 2012(1): 82-85.

    [6] 佟耕, 李鹏飞, 刘治国, 等. GIS 技术支持下的沈阳市中小学布局规划研究[J]. 规划师, 2014(1): 68-74.

    [7] FISCHEL W A. Making the grade: the economic evolution of American school districts[M]. University of Chicago Press, 2009.

    [8] 陈日华. 中古英格兰的教区行政[J]. 世界历史, 2007(1): 98-105.

    [9] 滕大春. 美国教育史[M]. 北京: 人民教育出版社, 1994.

    [10] INGRAM G K, KENYON D A. Education, land and location[M] //FISCHEL W A. Not by the hand of Horace Mann: how the quest for land value created the American school system. Cambridge: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 2014: 123-150.

    [11] MANN H. Tenth annual report to the Massachusetts State Board of Education[R]. Massachusetts, USA, 1847.

    [12] MANN H. Life and works of Horace Mann[M]. Walker, Fuller and Company, 1868.

    [13] BARD J, GARDENER C, WIELAND R. Rural school consolidation: history, research summary, conclusions, and recommendations[J]. Rural educator, 2006, 27(2): 40-48.

    [14] GORDON N E. Essays in the economics of education[D]. Harvard University, 2002.

    [15] BATTERSBY S, FISCHEL W A. The competitive structure of urban school districts in the United States[J]. Social science electronic publishing, 2006.

    [16] KENNY L W, SCHMIDT A B. The decline in the number of school districts in the US: 1950-1980[J]. Public choice, 1994, 79(1): 1-18.

    [17] STRANG D. The administrative transformation of American education: school district consolidation, 1938-1980[J]. Administrative science quarterly, 1987: 352-366.

    [18] 崔艳丽. 民国试行大学区制度失败原因分析[D]. 南京: 南京师范大学, 2006.

    [19] 范先佐. 我国基础教育财政体制改革的回顾与反思[J]. 华中师范大学学报( 人文社会科学版), 2003(5): 112-121.

    [20] HOXBY C M. Does competition among public schools benefit students and taxpayers? [J]. American economic review, 2000, 90: 1209-1238.

    [21] SWIFT F H. A history of public permanent common school funds in the United States, 1795-1905[M]. H. Holt and Company, 1911.

    [22] CUBBERLEY E P. Rural life and education: a study of the rural-school problem as a phase of the rural-life problem[M]. Houghton Mifflin, 1922.

    [23] GRUBER J. Public finance and public policy[M]. Macmillan, 2004.

    [24] Center for the Study of Education Policy Illinois State University. County school districts: research and policy considerations[R]. Illinois State University. 2009: 3.

    [25] BRIGGS D S, XAVIER N. The geography of opportunity[M]. Brookings Institution Press, 2005.

    [26] 王善迈, 曹夕多. 重构我国公共财政体制下的义务教育财政体制[J]. 北京大学教育评论, 2005(4): 25-30.

    [27] TIEBOUT C M. A pure theory of local expenditures[J]. Journal of political economy, 1956, 64(5): 416-424.

    [28] POST D, STAMBACH A. District consolidation and rural school closure: epluribus unum?[J]. Journal of research in rural education, 1999, 15(2): 106-117.

    [29] CONANT J B, GARDNER J W. The American high school today: a first report to interested citizens [M]. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959.

    [30] BRASINGTON D M. Joint provision of public goods: the consolidation of school districts[J]. Journal of public economics, 1999, 73(3): 373-393.

    [31] MARGO R A. Race and schooling in the South, 1880-1950: an economic history[M]. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990.

    [32] DUNCOMBE W, YINGER J. Does school district consolidation cut costs? [J]. Education, 2007, 2(4): 341-375.

    [33] KILLEEN K, SIPPLE J. School consolidation and transportation policy: an empirical and institutional analysis[J]. Arlington, VA: Rural School and Community Trust, 2000.

    [34] Brasington D M. School district consolidation, student performance, and housing values[J]. SSRN electronic journal, 1998, 27(2).

    [35] HOWLEY C, JOHNSON J, PETRIE J. Consolidation of schools and districts: what the research says and what it means[R]. National Education Policy Center, 2011.

    [36] 王轶军, 郑思齐, 龙奋杰. 城市公共服务的价值估计, 受益者分析和融资模式探讨[J]. 城市发展研究, 2007, 14(4): 46-53.

    [37] 陆云泉. 学区制新改革: 实现区域教育资源的深度整合[J]. 中小学管理, 2016(1): 8-10.

    [38] 陆铭, 蒋仕卿. 反思教育产业化的反思:有效利用教育资源的理论与政策[J]. 世界经济, 2007, 30(5): 44-51.


《国际城市规划》编辑部    北京市车公庄西路10号东楼E305/320    100037
邮箱:upi@vip.163.com  电话:010-58323806  传真:010-58323825
京ICP备13011701号-6  京公网安备11010802014223

5606855