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2020年第2期   DOI:10.19830/j.upi.2020.046
严寒地区的收缩城市研究 —— 以俄罗斯克拉斯诺亚尔斯克地区的三个极地城市为例
Study on Shringking Cities in Severe Cold Areas: The Examples of Three Polar Cities in Krasnoyarsk Region of Russia

伊琳娜·巴拉舍娃 冷红 宋世一

Elena Barasheva, Leng Hong, Song Shiyi

关键词:北方城市;俄罗斯极地城市;收缩城市;经济指数;社会指数; 人口流失;抗收缩

Keywords:Northern Cities; Russian Polar Cities; Shrinking Cities; Economic Index; Social Index; Population Loss; Anti-shrinkage

摘要:

城市收缩是发达国家和发展中国家普遍存在的一种国际化现象。以往研究表明,超过一半的俄罗斯城市经历了不同程度的收缩,这种情况在其气候条件恶劣的北方地区更为严重。本研究的目的是通过社会经济发展动态分析俄罗斯北部城市的收缩过程,首先对俄罗斯收缩城市研究现状进行了梳理和总结;在此基础上,选取过去30 年中人口总数下降较为明显的三个北方城市——诺里尔斯克、杜丁卡和伊加尔卡作为案例城市,对其反映人均工业产出的经济指数(EI)和反映社会福利水平的社会指数(SI)进行计算,结果表明该地区北部城市社会经济发展呈现出不均衡增长的现象。本研究证实了城市的经济福祉与人口生活水平之间的直接关系,并揭示出俄罗斯当前政策对收缩城市支持性的不足。

Abstract:

Shrinking cities is a phenomenon on international scale that has affected developed and developing countries. According to previous researches, more than half of Russian cities have experienced shrinkages to differents extents. The situation is even more serious with Russian cities in harsh climatic conditions. The purpose of this study is to analyse the shrinkage process of Northern Russian cities by determining the dynamics of socio-economic development of the case study cities, and outline policy responses to the current shrinking situation. The authors select three cities for analysis that have been experiencing population decline over the past 30 years: Norilsk, Dudinka, and Igarka. Firstly, this study reviews the research of shrinking cities in Russia; secondly, it calculates indicators of the social and economic situation in cities. The authors use two integral indicators: the economic index, which reflects the per capita industrial output and the social index, which reflects the level of social well-being. Finally, the work discovers the growth of disproportions in the socio-economic development between Northern cities of the region. The main findings are: the direct connection between economic well-being in the city and the living standards of the population was proven; the summary of case study cities’responses to urban shrinkage revealed an underdevelopment of government’s anti-shrinkage support.

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作者简介:

伊琳娜· 巴拉舍娃,哈尔滨工业大学建筑学院,寒地城乡人居环境科学与技术工业和信息化部重点实验室,博士研究生。jpegcoma45@gmail.com

冷红(通信作者),博士,哈尔滨工业大学建筑学院,寒地城乡人居环境科学与技术工业和信息化部重点实验室,教授,博士生导师。hitlaura@126.com

宋世一,哈尔滨工业大学建筑学院,寒地城乡人居环境科学与技术工业和信息化部重点实验室,博士研究生。15b934011@hit.edu.cn


译者简介:

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