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2020年第6期   DOI:10.19830/j.upi.2019.117
从“外源动力”到“内源动力”——二战后欧洲乡村发展动力的研究、实践及启示
From “Exogenous Forces” to “Endogenous Forces”: Research, Practice and Enlightenment of Rural Development Driving Forces in Europe After World War II

张晨 肖大威

Zhang Chen, Xiao Dawei

关键词:欧洲乡村;乡村发展;动力要素;外源动力;内源动力

Keywords:European Countryside; Rural Development; Driving Factors; Exogenous Forces; Endogenous Forces

摘要:

全球化的快速步伐推进着知识和实践经验的国际流动,跨国的知识借鉴可为地区发展中遇到的同类问题提供相关解决方案。在我国城乡快速转型发展的现实背景下,乡村发展面临巨大挑战。本文试图从乡村发展动力视角出发,追溯欧洲乡村研究和政策实践中对动力来源和组成要素认知的转变历程,以期为我国乡村发展困境提供思路。欧洲乡村发展总体经历了对城市资金、技术和政府政策补贴等外源动力要素的过度依赖向强调乡村自然、历史、人文资源和社区发展能力等内源动力要素的转变过程,伴随这一过程,乡村发展方式由政府干预下的乡村现代化转向社区主导下的乡村多元化。当前,我国的乡村发展仍需依靠外源动力要素的大量介入,政府主导下的发展忽视了乡村社区的主体力量,而后者才是乡村可持续发展的关键。欧洲的经验为我国乡村发展中政府角色定位、社区主体回归以及多样化路径探索提供了借鉴。


Abstract:

At present, the rapid pace of globalization promotes the international flow of knowledge and practical experience, and these transnational knowledge reference can provide relevant solutions for similar problems encountered in the development of other regions. Under the realistic background of rapid urban-rural transformation in China, rural development is facing enormous challenges. From the perspective of rural development dynamics, this paper attempts to trace the change of cognition on the sources and components of driving forces in European rural research and policy practice, in order to provide ideas for the plight of rural development in China. Rural development in Europe has experienced a process of transition from over-reliance on exogenous driving factors such as urban capital, technology and government policy subsidies to emphasizing endogenous driving factors such as rural nature, history, human resources and community development capabilities. Simultaneously, the way of rural development has shifted from rural modernization under government intervention to community-led rural diversification. At present, Chinese rural development still relies on the involvement of a large number of external driving forces. In this process, government-led rural development ignores the main force of rural community, which is the key to sustainable rural development. Therefore, the European experience provides lessons and enlightenments for our rural development in the role of government, the return of community subjects and the exploration of diversified paths.


版权信息:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(51778232),广东省自然科学基金(2017A030310070)资助
作者简介:

张晨,华南理工大学建筑学院,博士研究生。zhixiangjushi@126.com

肖大威(通信作者),博士,华南理工大学建筑学院,教授;亚热带建筑科学国家重点实验室,主任。ardwxiao@scut.edu.cn


译者简介:

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