点击排行
 
正文
全文下载次数:199
2021年第1期   DOI:10.19830/j.upi.2020.385
自然元素在中国城市公园儿童游戏空间设计中的应用调查研究
Study on the Application of Natural Elements in Urban Parks’ Children’s Play Space in China

王霞 陈甜甜 林广思

Wang Xia, Chen Tiantian, Lin Guangsi

关键词:儿童友好城市环境;城市化;自然元素;儿童游戏空间;城市公园

Keywords:Child-friendly Urban Environment; Urbanization; Natural Elements; Children’s Play Space; Urban Parks

摘要:

为儿童营造健康且有益于其成长的环境已成为当下儿童友好型城市建设的必要部分。城市中儿童游戏空间的设计多种多样,但国内外研究者和实践者都意识到“接触自然”对儿童的成长和发展等各个方面均有重要意义,这也得到了欧美国家相关理论和实证研究的证实。儿童游戏空间中的自然元素毋庸置疑成为城市公园设计的重要因素。基于国外理论与实践研究成果,本文旨在探索中国城市公园内儿童游戏空间中自然元素的应用情况,选取北京、上海、广州、成都4 个城市中87 个城市公园的儿童游戏空间进行调研,尝试弥补国内儿童友好型城市中游戏空间的空白,以期提升未来儿童友好型城市中公共活动空间的营造质量。研究发现,国内儿童游戏场地具有普遍自然性不足、形式较为单一等问题,本文对此提出了相应的策略,建议采用丰富的自然材料来提高游戏场地的自然性,同时应尽快推出相关设计导则或规范。


Abstract:

To create a healthy and beneficial environment for children has become a necessary part of building a child-friendly city. There are various designs of children’s play spaces, but researchers and practitioners at home and abroad have realized that contact with nature”is important for children’s growth and development, which has been confirmed by relevant theories and empirical studies in Europe and North America. The natural elements in children’s play space have indisputably become an important factor in the design of urban parks. Based on the research results of foreign theories and practices, this paper aims to explore the application of natural elements in children’s play space in Chinese urban parks. 87 children’s playgrounds in urban parks in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Chengdu were selected for investigation, in attempt to fill the gap of children’s paly space in domestic childfriendly cities and improve the quality activity spaces in future child-friendly cities. It is found that hildren’s play space in four cities are generally lacking of naturalness and the form is rather monotonous. This paper proposes corresponding strategies by using rich material, and at the same time, the release of relevant design guidelines or specifications has become an urgent demand.


版权信息:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金青年基金项目“城市户外儿童游戏空间设计特性与游戏价值研究”(51708370)资助
作者简介:

王霞,博士,四川大学建筑与环境学院,副教授。wxia@scu.edu.cn

陈甜甜,四川大学建筑与环境学院,风景园林专业本科生

林广思(通信作者),博士,华南理工大学建筑学院风景园林系,教授、博士生导师,系主任。asilin@126.com


译者简介:

参考文献:
  • [1] KAPLAN S. The restorative benefits of nature: towards an integrative framework[J]. Journal of environmental psychology, 1995, 15(3): 169-182.

    [2] LESTER S, MAUDSLEY M. Play naturally: a review of children’s natural play[R]. London: Play England/National Children’s Bureau, 2007.

    [3] TITMAN W, WWF. Special places, special people: the hidden curriculum of school grounds[M]. Cambridge, the UK: Learning Through Landscapes, 1994.

    [4] FJ?RTOFT I, SAGEIE J. The natural environment as a playground for children: landscape description and analysis of a natural landscape[J]. Landscape and urban planning, 2000, 48(1/2): 83-97.

    [5] MALONE K, TRANTER P. School grounds as sites for learning: making the most of environmental opportunities[J]. Environment education research, 2003, 9(3): 283-303.

    [6] GRAHN P, MARTENSSON F, LINBLAD B, et al. Outdoors at day-care[J]. City and county, 1997,145: 20-27.

    [7] TAYLOR A F, KUO F E, SULLIVAN W C. Coping with ADD-the surprising connection to green play settings[J]. Environment and behaviour, 2001, 33(1): 54-77.

    [8] MURRAY R, O’BRIEN L. Such enthusiasm - a joy to see: an evaluation of forest school in England[R]. Forest Research, 2005.

    [9] MOORE R, WONG H. Natural learning: rediscovering nature’s way of teaching[M]. Berkeley, CA: MIG Communications, 1997.

    [10] KELLERT S R. Building for Life: Designing and Understanding the Human-Nature Connection[M]. Washington DC: Island Press, 2005.

    [11] 鲍鲁泉. 儿童户外游戏场地自然化设计探析[J]. 中国城市林业, 2013(6): 38-40.

    [12] 罗雨雁, 王霞. 景观感知下的城市户外空间自然式儿童游戏场认知研究[J]. 风景园林, 2017(3): 73-78.

    [13] 祁素萍, 齐程宏, 王萍. 儿童户外游戏场地安全性研究[J]. 中国园林, 2013(5): 81-84.

    [14] FJORTOFT I. Landscape as playscape: the effects of natural environments on children’s play and motor development[J]. Children, youth and environments, 2004, 14(2): 21-44.

    [15] WELLS N. At home with nature: effects of greenness on children’s cognitive functioning[J]. Environment and behaviour, 2000, 32(3): 311-330.

    [16] WELLS N, EVANS G. Nearby nature: a buffer of life stress among rural children[J]. Environment and behaviour, 2003, 35(3): 311-330.

    [17] 符晨洁. 公园儿童游戏场的自然互动式设计探索——以河北燕郊植物园儿童活动区为例[J]. 中外建筑, 2012(7): 100-102.

    [18] 王霞, 刘孝仪. 自然式儿童游戏场设计——以英国小学为例[J]. 中国园林, 2015(1): 46-50.

    [19] 仙田满. 究竟怎样的环境才是健康培养儿童的良好环境[J]. 风景园林, 2012(3): 148-149.

    [20] 吕志祥. 儿童娱乐场所的景观设计[J]. 现代园艺, 2014(3): 99.

    [21] 张谊. 国外城市儿童户外公共活动空间需求研究述评[J]. 国际城市规划, 2011(4): 48-55.

    [22] WOOLLEY H, LOWE A. Exploring the relationship between design approach and play value of outdoor play spaces[J]. Landscape research, 2013, 38(1): 53-74.

    [23] WOOLLEY H. Where do the children play? How policies can influence practice[J]. Municipal engineer, 2007, 160(2): 89-95.

    [24] WOOLLEY H. Watch this space: designing for children’s play in public open spaces[J]. Geography compass, 2008, 2(2): 495-512.

    [25] GREENMAN J. It ain’t easy being green-beginnings workshop[J]. Child care information exchange, 1993, 91: 336-337.

    [26] WARDLE F. Alternatives-Bruderh of education: outdoor schools[J]. Young children, 1995, 50(3): 68-73.

    [27] COSCO N, MOORE R. Sensory integration and contact with nature: designing outdoor inclusive environments[J]. The North American Montessori Teachers Association Journal, 2009, 34(2): 159-177.

    [28] 胡赛强, 张春英. 基于儿童心理行为特征与居住区户外游戏场设计探析[J]. 现代园林,2009(2): 35-38.

    [29] 杨滨章. 快乐的天地成长的乐园——丹麦儿童游戏场地设计艺术探析[J]. 中国园林, 2010(11): 57-62.

    [30] 董楠楠, 陈健, 斯蒂芬妮·洛夫. 让孩子们更安全地嬉戏——德国户外儿童游戏场安全标准体系[J]. 中国园林, 2016(8): 75-80.

    [31] Design for Play: A guide to creating successful play spaces[EB/OL]. [2019-10-05]. http://www.freeplaynetwork.org.uk/designforplay/.

    [32] Greater London Authority. Shaping neighbourhoods: play and informal recreation (supplementary planning guidance)[R]. London, 2012.

    [33] Sowing the Seeds: Reconnecting London’s children with nature through play[EB/OL]. [2019-09-14]. http://www.london.gov.uk/.


《国际城市规划》编辑部    北京市车公庄西路10号东楼E305/320    100037
邮箱:upi@vip.163.com  电话:010-58323806  传真:010-58323825
京ICP备13011701号-6  京公网安备11010802014223

5604791