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2021年第1期   DOI:10.19830/j.upi.2019.642
公共健康和福祉视角下英国城市公园发展研究
Evolution of British Urban Parks from the Perspective of Public Health and Well-being

赵晓龙 王敏聪 赵巍 陈晓超 卞晴

Zhao Xiaolong, Wang Mincong, Zhao Wei, Chen Xiaochao, Bian Qing

关键词:英国城市公园;公共健康和福祉;健康景观;发展脉络;发展趋势

Keywords:British Urban Park; Public Health and Well-being; Healthy Landscape; Evolution Context; Evolution Trend

摘要:

公共健康和福祉作为社会发展所追求的目标之一,其内涵随时代而改变,推动了城市公园的发展。本文按照时间顺序梳理了英国城市公园规划设计与公共健康主题演变之间的互动关系。根据其所处的社会与政治经济背景及卫生条件,将民众的健康诉求内涵归纳为六个阶段:预防传染疫病,解决城市环境问题,关注休闲运动,寻求社会融合与促进心理健康,培养健康生活方式,构建社会与生态系统共同健康。城市公园随之经历了“隔离效应”选址、风廊道建构、运动设施增设、交往空间系统建立、目标人群空间细化、公园生境体系建设的演化。由此可见,公共健康和福祉视角下英国城市公园的发展呈现出了从建立城市公园到构建公园城市,从关注个体生理健康到追求个体、社会及生态系统深层健康,从“泛健康”到细分目标人群的发展趋势。本文旨在总结英国的经验,探求“健康中国”背景下我国的城市公园建设途径。


Abstract:

The connotation of public health and well-being, a goal of social development, changes over time, and this kind of dynamic social needs have promoted the continuous evolution of urban parks. This article traces the interaction between British urban parks and public health topics. Based on the social background, political-economic context and health conditions in which Great Britain is situated, public health appeals have experienced six phases: prevention of infectious diseases, solution of urban environmental problems, attention to leisure sports, exploration of social integration and promotion of mental health, cultivation of healthy lifestyles, and the construction of healthy social and ecological systems. Accordingly, urban parks have experienced isolation-based site selection, forming wind corridor, adding sports facilities, establishing communication space systems, refining target population space, constructing park-habitat network layout. This research finds that the planning and design of British urban parks from the perspective of public health and well-being has emerged from the establishment of urban parks to the construction of park cities, from the attention to individual physiological health to the pursuit of individual, society and ecosystem health, from broadly promoting health to boosting health for some specific population. This research aims to draw on Britain’s experience in this field to explore the way of urban park planning and construction in China under the “Healthy China” planning strategy.


版权信息:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目(51878206),黑龙江省寒地景观科学与技术重点实验室自主课题项目(2016HDJG-3101)共同资助
作者简介:

赵晓龙(通信作者),博士,苏州科技大学建筑与城市规划学院,教授,博士生导师,国家一级注册建筑师。943439654@qq.com

王敏聪,哈尔滨工业大学建筑学院,寒地城乡人居环境科学与技术工业和信息化部重点实验室,硕士研究生。17S034093@stu.hit.edu.cn

赵巍,博士,哈尔滨工业大学建筑学院,寒地城乡人居环境科学与技术工业和信息化部重点实验室,讲师。zhaoweila@hit.edu.cn

陈晓超,哈尔滨工业大学建筑学院,寒地城乡人居环境科学与技术工业和信息化部重点实验室,硕士研究生

卞晴,哈尔滨工业大学建筑学院,寒地城乡人居环境科学与技术工业和信息化部重点实验室,博士研究生


译者简介:

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