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2021年第2期   DOI:10.19830/j.upi.2019.615
日本持续照护退休社区的本土化实践路径探析
Exploration on the Localization Process of Japan’s Continuous Care Retirement Community

张子琪

Zhang Ziqi

关键词:持续照护退休社区;日本版CCRC ;终身活跃社区;本土化实践;养老模式

Keywords:Continuing Care Retirement Community; Japanese Version of CCRC; Lifelong Active Community; Practice of Localization; Eldercare Model

摘要:

近年我国参照美国“持续照护退休社区”(CCRC)建设的商业化养老社区大量兴起,也逐渐显现出直接套用美国模式带来的设计、使用、运营上的“水土不服”。日本同样经历了借鉴美国CCRC 模式之路,而从美国CCRC 原型,到“日本版CCRC”的初步提案,再到“终身活跃社区”的规划框架,这一将既有持续照料退休社区模式本土化的过程对我国未来商业化养老社区的发展具有一定的借鉴意义。本文从美国CCRC 的发展背景和特点切入,着重梳理和分析日本如何根据自身问题确立目标,建立多层级共同推进体系,灵活调用和组合现有制度与政策,开展先行实践并进行反馈修正,最终形成目标定位明确、应对国情差异、植根当地资源、强化本国特色的养老模式的过程,并在文章最后归纳了其中可供我国借鉴的部分。

Abstract:

In recent years, a large number of communities referring from the United States’ Communities Continuous Care Retirement Community (CCRC) have sprung up in China, which gradually shows the unsatisfied problems in design, use and management by directly applying the American model. Japan has also experienced the path of learning from the CCRC model of the United States. From the prototype of CCRC to the preliminary proposal of the “Japanese version of CCRC”, then to the planning framework of the “lifelong active community”, the process of Japan’s localization of the CCRC model is worth reference. Starting from the development background and characteristics of CCRC in the United States, this paper focuses on analyzing how Japan aimed at its own problems, established multi-level administrative systems, flexibly invoked and combined existing policies, carried out promoting approaches according to practical feedback, and finally formed a localized CCRC model with obtaining clear orientation, responding to national differences, rooting in local resources and strengthening characteristics. This study also summarizes those can be served for reference.

版权信息:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金青年基金项目(52008241)
作者简介:

张子琪,博士,上海交通大学设计学院,讲师。ziqizhang@sjtu.edu.cn


译者简介:

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