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2021年第4期   DOI:10.19830/j.upi.2019.654
英国社会住房的分配模式及其影响
The UK’s Social Housing Distribution and Its Effects

邱君丽 刘玉亭

Qiu Junli, Liu Yuting

关键词:社会住房;分配模式;剩余化;弱势群体;需要;选择;英国

Keywords:Social Housing; Distribution Patterns; Residualization; Vulnerable Groups; Need; Choice; The UK

摘要:

保障房分配作为住房供应中的重要环节,是当前我国城市发展的重要议题。在英国,基于社会经济体制和住房政策转变的广泛背景,有关社会住房分配的理论探讨和实践经验已相当丰富,值得借鉴。本文梳理了英国社会住房角色变迁的背景,探讨其分配模式及其影响。英国社会住房大体经历了从“为工人阶级提供体面住房”到“为社会大众提供住房”再到“为穷人提供住房”的转变,呈现出剩余化特征。与之相对应,社会住房的分配模式也经历了从早期地方政府主导下“基于应得的分配”,到国家干预下“基于需求的分配”,再到市场化背景下“基于选择的出租”的转变。社会住房分配模式的变迁契合了英国保障房体系改革的市场化导向,但其影响也在一定程度上折射出其弊端。


Abstract:

As an important part of housing provision, social housing distribution is a key issue in Chinese cities. Originated from the late 19th century, social housing has a long history in the United Kingdom, and its distribution has long been discussed. Based on extensive researches and discussions about social housing distribution in the UK, we try to establish an explorative framework to link the changing role of social housing and its distribution patterns and discuss its social-spatial effects. Changing from “providing decent home for the working class” in the late 19th and early 20th century to “reducing severe housing shortage to meet general needs” during the two post-World War periods, the role of social housing has become “a safety-net for the least well off” since the 1970s. Correspondingly, social housing distribution pattern has undergone three stages, namely“desert-based allocation”, “needs-based allocation” and “choice-based lettings”. We argue that changes of social housing distribution echoed the maet logic of affordable housing reform in the UK,nevertheless, the social-spatial outcomes indicate its disadvantages to some extent.

版权信息:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目(41771175)、亚热带建筑科学国家重点实验室自主研究课题(2017KA02)、国家公派联合培养博士生项目共同资助,广州市人文社科重点研究基地部分研究成果
作者简介:

邱君丽,华南理工大学,博士研究生,荷兰乌得勒支大学访学博士生。marji123@foxmail.com

刘玉亭(通信作者),博士,华南理工大学建筑学院城市规划系,副系主任,亚热带建筑科学国家重点实验室,教授、博士生导师。ytliu@scut.edu.cn


译者简介:

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