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2021年第4期   DOI:10.19830/j.upi.2020.557
德国住房保障制度的演进、形式、特征与启示
Transition, Types and Characteristics of Social Housing System in Germany and Its Enlightenment to China

王阳 洪晓苇 李知然

Wang Yang, Hong Xiaowei, Li Zhiran

关键词:德国;住房保障;货币补贴;租金控制;人群适配

Keywords:Germany; Social Housing; Monetary Subsidy of Tenant; Rent Control; Matching of Tenant and Social Housing

摘要:

德国作为住房保障政策较为成熟的高福利国家,一直在探寻与不同发展阶段需求相匹配的住房保障制度,试图通过适时调整实物配租与货币补贴的比例关系,调控租金控制力度,实现住房保障与目标人群范围的动态适配。在二战后住房短缺时期,德国建设大量实体保障性住房,推出住房保障政策;在经济平稳发展时期,德国推进住房保障市场化,加强货币补贴力度;在住房市场震荡后,德国重启实体保障性住房建设,扩大货币补贴人群范围。然而,在住房保障制度调适过程中,德国也曾出现政策衍生问题,如:实物配租与货币补贴不均衡配置,住房保障模式单一化发展,降低了住房保障效率;过度租金控制造成旧约与新约租金价格差距扩大,阻碍了保障性住房市场化流动;忽视潜在目标人群,出现“老年返贫”和“贫困延迟”,导致未来需保障人群扩大化。借鉴德国经验与教训,我国保障性住房制度改革需结合自身发展状况,推进货币补贴政策,坚持实物配租供给;健全租金控制制度,提高市场配置效率;明确保障目标人群,扩大住房保障范围。


Abstract:

As a high welfare country with mature social housing policies, Germany has been searching for social housing system to match the social needs of different stages of development. Germany has been trying to adjust the proportion of material social housing supply and monetary subsidies of tenant and the intensity of rent control by timely, in order to dynamically adapt the scope of social housing and its target population. In the period of housing shortage after World War II, Germany built a host of material social housing and introduced social housing policies; in the period of stable economic development, Germany promoted the marketization of social housing and strengthened the intensity of monetary subsidy of tenant; after the shock of the housing market, Germany restarted the construction of material social housing and expanded the scope of monetary subsidy of tenant. However, the development of German social housing system is also accompanied by some problems. For instance, the unbalanced allocation of material social housing and monetary subsidy of tenant promotes the unitary development of social housing model, which reduces the efficiency of the implementation of social housing policy. Excessive rent control widens the gap in the rental price of housing rental contracts, including the extension of old housing leasing contracts and newly signed housing leasing contracts, which hinders the market-oriented flow of social housing. The neglect of potential social housing target groups leads to the phenomenon of “old age returning to poverty” and “poverty delay”, which increases the number of people who need social housing in the future. Learning from Germany, the reform of China’s social housing system needs to combine with its own development situation, promotes the monetary subsidy of tenant, adheres to the material social housing supply, improves the rent control system, enhances the efficiency of market allocation, clarifies the tenant of social housing, and expands the scope of social housing.


版权信息:
基金项目:住房和城乡建设部基金项目(2016-K2-019、2019-R-004)资助
作者简介:

王阳,博士,西安建筑科技大学建筑学院,副教授、硕士生导师;德国魏玛包豪斯大学,青年研究员、博士后;国家注册城市规划师。wangyang@xauat.edu.cn

洪晓苇,西安建筑科技大学建筑学院,硕士研究生。374496708@qq.com

李知然,西安建筑科技大学建筑学院,硕士研究生。1438382721@qq.com


译者简介:

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