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2021年第5期   DOI:10.19830/j.upi.2021.407
三维城市空间形态演进及其地表热岛效应的规划应对——以北京市为例
Analyzing the Transformation of 3D Urban Morphology and Corresponding Surface Heat Island Effect in Beijing

蔡智 唐燕 刘畅 马蒂亚斯· 德米泽尔

Cai Zhi, Tang Yan, Liu Chang, Matthias Demuzere

关键词:地表温度 ;地表热岛 ;三维空间形态 ;局地气候分区 ;演进 ;北京

Keywords:Land Surface Temperature; Surface Urban Heat Island; Three-dimensional Urban Morphology; Local Climate Zone; Transformation; Beijing

摘要:

快速城市化进程显著改变了城市地区的物质空间形态,并常常引发系列生态环境问题,其中较为显著的是城市热岛效应。本文基于 Landsat 系列、Sentinel系列等多源卫星遥感数据和深度学习方法,采用系统化的局地气候分区城市空间形态分类方案,识别并分析了北京近 20 年三维城市空间形态的演进特征和地表热岛效应。结果表明,北京低层形态类型持续收缩,向高层类型(紧凑高层、开敞高层)发展的趋势明显,分析其驱动力可以发现城市规划和政府政策扮演了至关重要的角色。空间形态演进也影响并改变了北京城市地表热岛的分布格局,高温热岛区主要集中在紧凑低层、紧凑中层和大体量低层里。本文针对城市空间形态类型不同的地表热岛效应,提出了差异化的规划应对策略,以期为缓解城市地表热岛效应、增强城市气候适应性等提供决策支持。


Abstract:

Rapid urbanization has changed the physical urban morphology, and results in various environmental problems, one is the urban heat island effect. In this paper, we use multi-source satellite remote sensing data (e.g., Landsat series and Sentinel series) and deep-learning technology to identify and analyze the three-dimensional (3D) urban morphology transformation characteristics in Beijing, as well as its corresponding surface urban heat island effect in recent 20 years, which is based on Local Climate Zone (LCZ) scheme. The results show that the morphological types of low-rise buildings continued to shrink and the trend towards high-rise types (e.g., compact high-rise, open high-rise) is obvious. The transformation of urban morphology is mainly driven by urban planning and government policies. Urban morphology transformation has also affected and changed the spatial-temporal distribution of surface urban heat island in Beijing. High surface urban heat island effect zones mainly appear in the compact low-rise, compact mid-rise and large low-rise types. Based on those analyses, corresponding planning strategies have been put forward to provide decision support for mitigate surface urban heat island and enhancing urban climate adaptability.


版权信息:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(51978363)、北京社会科学基金(19GLB034)、国家重点研发计划(2018YFC0704600)、首都区域空间规划研究北京市重点实验室开放课(CLAB202009)、“清华—腾讯”2020 WeSpace 学术支持计划联合资助
作者简介:

蔡智,清华大学建筑学院,博士研究生。czhi911@gmail.com

唐燕(通信作者),清华大学建筑学院,博士生导师。yantang@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

刘畅,清华大学建筑学院,博士研究生。2627189484@qq.com

马蒂亚斯 · 德米泽尔,德国波鸿大学(Ruhr-University Bochum),研究员。matthias. demuzere @ ruhr-uni-bochum. de


译者简介:

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