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2021年第6期   DOI:10.19830/j.upi.2021.515
纽约的韧性社区规划实践及若干讨论
The Introduction and Discussions of Resilient Community Planning Practices in New York City

钟晓华

Zhong Xiaohua

关键词:纽约;韧性;社区规划;风险;治理

Keywords:New York City; Resilience; Community Planning; Risk; Governance

摘要:

随着城市化和全球化进程的深入,世界大城市均进入风险高发状态,风险的复杂性、不确定性和扩散性与日俱增,韧性系统建设成为抵御风险的重要战略。特大城市因高聚集性、高流动性和全球依赖性而面临着更为复杂的风险挑战,社区作为最基础的城市治理单元,在韧性建设框架中尤为重要。本文梳理了韧性社区规划的相关概念与内容,选取参与主体、管理机制、规划工具和整体性社区方法等要素作为纽约韧性社区规划的分析框架,重点介绍并评议了197-a 参与式社区规划、社区应急响应网络、滨水社区规划和整体社区调查方法的具体实践。之后笔者从政策工具、决策机制、实施路径等方面讨论了纽约实践对国内特大城市韧性社区规划的启示。


Abstract:

With the process of urbanization and globalization, global megacities have entered an era of high-risk society, while the complexity, uncertainty and diffusion of risks are also increasing. Therefore, the establishment of resilient system has become significant. Due to high aggregation, mobility and global dependence, megacities are facing more comprehensive risk challenges. As the most basic urban governance unit, communities are particularly important in the framework of resilient building system. Therefore, this paper reviews the theoretical and practical evolution of resilient community planning, and then selects key factors as the participants, management mechanism, planning tools and integrated system to analyze NYC’s practices. Through analyzing the cases of 197-a planning (community-based planning), emergency response network (management system), waterfront community zoning (special zoning tools) and PLACES Initiative (whole community approach), this paper discusses how Chinese cities can learn from NYC’s practices on the construction of resilient community in domestic megacities from the aspects of policy tools, decisionmaking mechanism and implementation paths.


版权信息:
基金项目:
作者简介:

钟晓华,同济大学政治与国际关系学院社会学系,副教授,副系主任。xhzhong@tongji.edu.cn


译者简介:

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